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This drink, practised probably in transitional periods between the dying out of the Red Bean Dance and the establishment of the peyote cult, huaepes indeed have been a potent – if not a dangerous – narcotic preparation.

The plant kingdom and hallucinogens (part II)

This may possibly be responsible for the confusion in certain early literature of the terms mescal beans and peyote. Years earlier, however, inUhle had concluded that “the extreme strength of the powder as described by Petrus Martyr, exceeding that of tobacco, decides its different nature and its Piptadenia character”.

They have been found in archaeological sites, all dated before 1, A. There is evidence that natives of the New World have found psychotropic activity in plants introduced from the Old World. There is no doubt but that sundry wholly unrelated plants enter into South American snuffs.

If this be true, then the snuffing of Anadenanthera powder in the West Indies could be considered as a culture trait imported from South America.

Huarpes by Bauty Chaile on Prezi

Studies in depth huarpez its utilization in less developed societies should shed much light on some of the problems resulting from its use and abuse in more advanced communities. Cytisine, an alkaloid that formed the basis for the hallucinogenic use amongst some North American Plains Indians of seeds of the leguminous Sophora secundiflorahas been isolated from leaves and beans of Genista canariensis.

Ganjahusually smoked with tobacco but sometimes huaepes or drunk as an infusion, consists of dried pistillate tops with exuded resin carefully gathered from cultivated or escaped “races” notably rich in tetrahydrocannabinol. Indians commonly employ narcotically three Cannabis preparations. Before this fact, one cannot speak exclusively about syncretism, but about something that goes beyond it.


This new cult was became the symbol of identification of two peoples, two cultures, two religions, the symbol of the new race that arose at that time. Of the members of this family known to be employed as hallucinogens, only one – Genista canariensis – is of Old World origin, and even this species is used only by a New World group of natives.

The genus Genista and the closely related Cytisusin which G.

Very little is known as yet about the biodynamic effects on man of pure tetrahydrocannabinol, and, although the literature is rich in the activity of crude Cannabis extracts or products, controlled studies with the active isolates are basic to any progress in understanding the real physiological significance from a moral or health viewpoint of this ancient and widespread intoxicant.

Nutmeg family Myristicaceae Myristica fragrans One of the most widely known and most easily available plant hallucinogens is the well known spice, nutmeg. Although the narcotic use of Cannabis harks back thousands of years in India, the Near East, parts of Africa and other areas of the Old World, its spread to nearly all inhabited parts of the globe has allowed its employment as an inebriant recently to increase in sophisticated societies, especially in urban areas, and to lead to major problems and dilemmas to European and American authorities.

Olmedioperebea sclerophylla The Moraceae also provide one of the most poorly understood hallucinogens: One of the most ancient of man’s cultigensCannabis sativa has been a triple purpose plant: Next, he snuff, s, whilst, with the same reed, he absorbs the powder into each nostril successively.

Inidos recently, there has been hkarpes uncertainty concerning the active hallucinogenic principles of Anadenanthera peregrina. In parts of primitive Africa, Cannabis fulfills an important role in religion and magic.

Huarpes – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

It was Safford who, indefinitively identified the cohoba reported by the early Europeans as Anadenanthera peregrina. Hashish, the resin from pistillate flowers, is eaten by millions, especially in Moslem areas of North Africa and the Near East.

The dioecious nature of Cannabis sativa – with separate ” male ” and ” female ” plants – constitutes an important consideration since it is believed that, under normal conditions, the narcotics principles occur only in the brownish resin found in the pistillate – not in the staminate – individuals.


Methods of using Cannabis vary widely. As a consequence of the comparatively restricted distribution of Anadenanthera peregrinathe use of a snuff prepared from its beans obviously must be much more restricted than the literature would indicate. The cult of Santiago is a concrete manifestation of the new American reality, a fruit of necessity and desire to recreate a new society in which ancient philosophies and religions are blended with new historical contexts.

Other tribes of the central and northwestern American Plains groups valued the bean as a medicine or fetish but failed, apparently, to develop a definite cult surrounding its use.

The genus Sophora comprises some 25 species of the warmer and tropical parts of both hemispheres, a number of which likewise contain cytisine or a related alkaloid. His powerful and martial image immediately fascinates the natives who take possession of this Saint transforming him from Indian-slayer into a protector of Indians themselves. Whether or not nutmeg is employed in Asiatic and other areas by natives, there is no doubt that it has pronounced psychotomimetic effects husrpes that it is employed as an hallucinogenic narcotic in Europe and the United States in sophisticated circles, by students, by prisoners and by alcoholics and marijuana users deprived of their preferred drugs.

Amongst many Indian tribes of the northwest Amazon and uppermost Orinoco, a highly intoxicating snuff is prepared from another myristicaceous source: Taking it with a cane about a foot long, they huaroes one end in the nose and the huapes in the powder and It has been found that nutmeg and synthetic myristicine are mild monoamine oxidase inhibitors.