The final result was the Bull “Apostolicae Curae”, in which Anglican orders were declared to be invalid. As the Bull itself explains at length, its decision rests on. APOSTOLICAE CURAE. Pope Leo XIII. Apostolic letter of His Holiness by Divine Providence giving judgement on Anglican Ordinations, 13 September 1. Apostolicae curae et caritatis, qua Pastorem magnum ovium, Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum (Hebr. XIII, 20), referre pro munere et imitari, aspirante eius.
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Wherefore, strictly adhering, in this matter, to the decrees of the pontiffs, our predecessors, and confirming them most fully, and, as it were, renewing them by our authority, of our own initiative and certain knowledge, we pronounce and declare that ordinations carried out according to the Anglican rite have been, and are, absolutely null and utterly void.
Saepius officio was not presented as an official response of the church.
Leo XIII Judgement on Anglican Ordinations
Alteros quippe movebat praestantia sacerdotii christiani, exoptantes ut duplici eius in corpus Christi potestate ne carerent sui ; movebat alteros consilium expediendi quodammodo illis reditus ad unitatem: In reality, the instructions given by the popes to Cardinal Pole for the reconciliation of the Edwardian clergy stated a general principle and left the application to him. But even if this addition could give to the form its due signification, it was introduced too late, as a century had already elapsed since the adoption of the Edwardine Ordinal; and, moreover, as the hierarchy had become extinct, there remained no power of ordaining.
A few Catholic writers, also, thinking that there was at least room for doubt, joined with them in seeking a fresh inquiry into the question and an authoritative judgment from the Pope. If I do not believe giving someone a spacesuit makes them safe from radiation, I do not give them the suit with the explicit intention of denying them that property. It is quite certain in any event that the episcopate by Christ’s institution belongs most truly to the sacrament of Order and is the priesthood in the highest degree; it is what the holy Fathers and our own liturgical usage apostolicea ‘the high priesthood, the summit of the sacred ministry’.
Ceterum Apostolicae Sedis documenta et mandata non aliter quidem Legatus intellexit, apostolicar ita eis rite religioseque obtemperavit: Third, it assumes, in part two, that an addition to the “form” that was made in was intended to remedy a perceived inadequacy of the Edwardian form in light of Catholic criticisms, whereas it was in fact made to respond to Puritan critics.
And in order that the judgement on this form might be as complete and certain as possible, care had been taken to have a copy of the Anglican Ordinal available, and a comparison was made between this and the forms of ordination taken from various Eastern and Western rites.
Ista probe tenentibus non difficulter patebit quare in litteris Iulii III ad Legatum apostolicum, perscriptis die VIII martii MDLIV, distincta sit mentio, de iis primum qui rite et legitime promotiin suis ordinibus essent retinendi, tum de iis qui non promoti ad sacros ordinespossent, si digni et idonei reperti fuissent, promoveri.
Looking at the Edwardian ordinal, Dix found sufficient mention of the priesthood in the service, the actual formula at the laying on of hands being concerned not only with the priestly act of forgiving sins but also with administering the sacraments and sufficient mention of intention in the prefaces to the ordination rites, to make it impossible to believe that the priesthood was not being conferred and the traditional ministry continued.
That Christ performs any action in the Eucharist which involves a new offering of himself. Later writers made the connection very clear from early in the 17th Century, for example, Richard Field, Lancelot Andrewes and Francis White. For since the faculties given by these Pontiffs to the Apostolic Legate had reference to England only, and to the state of religion therein, and since the rules of action were laid down by them at the request of the said Legate, they could not have been mere directions for determining the necessary conditions for the validity of ordinations in general.
To this end We commissioned a certain number of men noted for their learning and ability, whose opinions in this matter were known to be divergent, to state the grounds of their judgement in writing. From them has been deliberately removed whatever sets forth the dignity and office of the priesthood in the Catholic rite.
A Critique of Apostolicae Curae
Voluntatis in ipsam Nostrae ea praecipue testis est epistola, quam superiore anno dedimus propriam ad Anglos, regnum Christi in fidei unitate quaerentes: Many of the more shrewd Anglican interpreters of the Ordinal cuae perceived the force of this argument, and they openly urge it against those who take the Ordinal in a new sense, and vainly attach to the Orders conferred thereby a value and efficacy which they do not possess. We wish to direct our exhortation and our desires in a special way to those who are ministers of religion in their respective communities.
We adduce two cases of this kind out of many which have from time to time been submitted to the Supreme Council of the Holy Office.
Hughes himself had previously been an Anglican priest and was subsequently conditionally ordained in the Roman Catholic Church. The introduction reviews the pope’s benevolent regard toward the people of England, the “common view” that the sacrament of Order lapsed under Edward VI because of the new rite that was then introduced, and the fact that in recent times many Anglicans have judged their orders valid because they believed in “the excellence of the Christian priesthood.
Unless this declaration had applied to the actual case in England, that is to say, to the Edwardine Ordinal, the Pope would certainly have done nothing by this last letter for the removal of doubt and the restoration of peace of conscience. Archived from the original on 4 June Two classes of persons really existing are plainly and definitely described: Essays on the Centenary of Apostolicae curae, — New York In this, whilst giving full force and approbation to what Pole had done, it is ordered in the matter of the Ordinations as follows: For an opinion already prevalent, confirmed more than once by the action and constant practice of the Church, maintained that when in England, shortly after it was rent from the center of Christian Unity, a new rite for conferring Holy Orders was publicly introduced under Edward VI, the true Sacrament of Order as instituted by Christ lapsed, and with it the hierarchical succession.
It is also of great importance to consider what Julius III himself says in his letter on making free use of the Papal faculties even for the benefit of those upon whom an [episcopal] consecration had been conferred ‘irregularly minus rite and without the observance of the customary form of the Church’; an expression which undoubtedly indicated those who had been consecrated according to the Edwardine rite, since apart from this form and the Catholic form there was none other existing in England at the time.
Eastern Orthodox lines were inserted in the nineteenth century. All these matters have been long and carefully considered by Ourselves and by Our Venerable Brethren, the Judges of the Supreme Council, of whom it has pleased Us to call a special meeting upon the 16th day of July last, the solemnity of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.
Nam formulae, Accipe Spiritum Sanctumnon modo serius adnexa sunt verba, ad officium et opus episcopised etiam de iisdem, ut mox dicemus, iudicandum aliter est quam in ritu catholico.
Retrieved 12 July