refractive index of the solid immersion lens n3 refractive index As a second benchmark a high numeric aperture oil objective is chosen which GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JAPIAU&idtype= cvips&prog. reconfigured as a variable numerical aperture microscope condenser by depositing a inner edge of the top aperture of the metal cage of the oil- immersion objective lens Sorry, there is no online preview for this file type. Diffraction: “light waves change direction when passing through an opening or some microscope objectives use oil (n = for immersion oil) to increase the n Numerical Aperture is a way to define the cone angle of light which passes .

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Anatomy of a Microscope – Numerical Aperture and Resolution

Proximity to neighboring cells has also been shown to be an important factor in predicting viral infection, neurite outgrowth, autophagy and a host of other phenomenon This is the basis for ovjective necessity of large numerical apertures and subsequent smaller Airy disks to achieve high-resolution images with an optical microscope.

This is the primary reason that objectives of high numerical aperture and total correction for optical aberration can distinguish finer detail in the specimen.

Commercially available plates with pre-coated substrate materials are offered by many manufactures. When planning a live cell experiment with untested bioprobes it is important to account for the time required for an HCS imaging device to acquire cells, fields or wells on a plate. For experiments where cells are used from a new source patient or animal for each sperture, responsiveness will vary, and separate normalizations will be required for each experiment.

Recently, they also adapted the BacMam technology to express GFP-fusion constructs of different organelle markers.

Oil immersion

They are preferred for live cell imaging. Similarly, water and oil objectives collect more light than dry lenses. This section will act as a quick description of points to think about when starting informatics analysis, and will be followed by advanced chapter s in areas such as machine-learning, image analysis for whole-organism, phenotypic clustering etc. An example of protein translocation, NF-kB translocation will be discussed in a separate chapter. Care should be used with these objectives to prevent unwanted artifacts that will arise when an objective is used with a different immersion medium than it was designed for.


There are many commercially available kits for specific protein translocations. The predictive power of such systems can often be enhanced by working with primary cells or differentiated stem cells and in 3-D culture rather than with cell lines in a traditional 2-D culture where many unique aspects of cellular physiology have been lost 6,7.

Cell adherence can be a problem for imaging assays that require fixation and staining, as these steps add additional treatments and washing cycles to the process. Typically, multiple features of the cell or organism are measured with one or more fluorescent dyes leading to the term High Content. Alternatively, compounds identified by traditional screens can be clustered by cellular phenotype in an imaged based screen to suggest both selectivity and toxicity issues.

Immersion Oil and Refractive Index | MicroscopyU

Several commercial and non-commercial websites provide extremely detailed information about microscopy and readers are encouraged to explore them to learn details about different fluorescent techniques listed in the links provided immerrsion below:. The Sum or Total intensity represents an aggregation of all the pixel intensities combined to make up the unit area, so these are directly affected by object apertrue.

To minimize effects of temperature fluctuations across the plate, one should make sure all plates and reagents used for the assay are warmed up to room temperature prior to the addition of cells, pre-plate the cells in the tissue culture hood, allow the cells to attach before moving the plates to the incubator; for assays that are extremely sensitive to temperature changes, one should not stack plates in the incubator. In these contexts, standard cell lines and culture conditions may be inadequate, but in other cases, such conditions may be fine.

LEDs are now bright enough to be used in microcopy and have made a rapid entry into the HC arena.


Unlike natural oils synthetic ones do not harden on the lens and can typically be left on the objective for months at a time.

Please note, while the optimization of health of the cells and biological conditions are needed, high levels of serum can lead to compound absorption in the assay affecting the results.

Oil immersion can generally only be used on rigidly mounted specimens otherwise the surface tension of the oil can move the coverslip and so move the sample underneath.

Use a secondary antibody reporter that is well established and be sure to measure secondary antibody staining alone without primary antibody to determine non-specific binding.

On the other hand, all images contain some imprecision or random error, which we call noise. The numerical aperture immerslon a microscope objective is a measure of its ability to gather light and resolve fine specimen detail at a fixed object distance. The effect of the wavelength of light on resolution, at a fixed numerical aperture 0. This can also happen on inverted microscopes i,mersion the coverslip is below the slide. Some primary cell models require media changes during the first few hours in culture, and the timing can vary from sample to sample.

When beginning a new assay, if and when possible use a validated assay kit, commercial if available, to become familiar with filetyoe steps involved in performing the assay. The refractive index of the imaging medium is critical in determining the working numerical aperture of a microscope objective. The logistical challenges are out of the scope fileetype this chapter, but scientists looking for novel therapeutic strategies should be aware of this approach. Frequently, there are specific imaging based assays for different steps involved in the complex biological event.

Studies on signaling pathways are also important to academic research.